May 28, 2017


The heart is a muscle consisting of four hollow chambers. It is a double pump: the left part works at a higher pressure, while the right part works on a lower pressure. 

The right heart pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation (i.e. the lungs). the left heart drives blood through the systemic circulation (i.e. the rest of the body). 

the right atrium (ra) receives deoxygenated blood from the body via two large veins, the superior and 

The inferior vena cava, and from the heart itself by way of the coronary sinus. the blood is transferred to the right ventricle (rV) via the tricuspid valve (tV). the right ventricle then pumps the deoxygenated blood via the pulmonary valve (pV) to the lungs where it releases excess carbon dioxide and picks up new oxygen. 

The left atrium (La) accepts the newly oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and delivers it to the left ventricle (LV) through the mitral valve (MV). the oxygenated blood is pumped by the left ventricle through the aortic valve (aoV) into the aorta (ao), the largest artery in the body. 
the blood flowing into the aorta is further distributed throughout the body where it releases oxygen to the cells and collects carbon dioxide from them.

Abbreviations : Ao = aorta ; AoV = aortic valve ; LA = left atrium ; LV = left ventricle ; MV = mitral valve ; PV = pulmonary valve ; RA = right atrium ; RV = right ventricle ; TV = tricuspid valve ; IVC = inferior vena cava ; SVC = superior vena cava ; O2   = oxygen ; CO2   = carbon dioxide 

The cardiac cycle consists of two primary phases:  

1. VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE is a period of myocardial relaxation when the ventricles are filled with blood.  

2. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE is the period of contraction when the blood is forced out of the ventricles into the arterial tree. At rest, this cycle is normally repeated at a rate of approximately 70–75 times/minute and slower during sleep.

May 17, 2017

What Is An ECG?

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the recording of the electrical activity generated during and after activation of the various parts of the heart. It is detected by electrodes attached to the skin.

The ECG provides information on:

* The heart rate or cardiac rhythm.
* Position of the heart inside the body.
* The thickness of the heart muscle or dilatation of heart cavities.
* Origin and propagation of the electrical activity and its possible aberrations.
* Cardiac rhythm disorders due to congenital anomalies of the heart.
* Injuries due to insufficient blood supply (ischemia, infarction ...).

* Malfunction of the heart due to electrolyte disturbances or drugs.  

The Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven was one of the pioneers of electrocardiography and developer of the first useful string galvonometer. He labelled the various parts of the electrocardiogram using P, Q, R, S and T in a classic article published in 1903. Professor Einthoven received the Nobel prize for medicine in 1924. 

May 13, 2017

Creating Blog Effectively To Maximize Business Benefits On The Net

Blogging to attain business benefits is evidently the most effective way of enhancing connection with other Internet users. Currently, blogging proved its extent potential and value as alternative living and way to advancing one’s expertise and career. Regardless of the need and/or purpose behind, blogging is simply succeeded and provides countless benefits to an individual, business, or web site.

Specifically, creating a blog for a particular business can be an effective method to establishing connection with other Internet users who may share the same interest with the current topic. Normally, bloggers or blog authors think of their blogs as niche on the Internet. In essence, a blog serves as an excellent avenue to sharing thoughts, opinions, knowledge, and expertise in various areas of interest, issues, and/or realms.

Following are some helpful ways to creating a blog that can readily catch potential clients’ interest and attention for a current online business, which are as follows.

1. Selecting a blogging software that is easy to use (e.g., WordPress, Typepad). Both software provide blog ownership and other privileges for an overall blog management.

2. Regular posting of blog entries. Initial posting may have been done with numerous entries. This however, eventually runs to a twice-a-week posting. Blog writing requires creativity and resourcefulness—rewriting or rephrasing of originally written resources. Hence, keeping the articles intact is very important— keeping author credits and information box exactly as written.

3. Focusing a blog on a single topic only. Doing this helps in keeping blog readers’ interest.

4. Try reading and commenting on other person’s blogs. This provides avenues for sharing, learning, and exchanging of views, insights, knowledge, and expertise.

Generally, following the above steps mainly enhance a blog’s readability, which eventually provides profitable business opportunities.

Business Blog: An Effective Way To Advancing Even The Smallest Business

Business blog is a corporate or business tool to communicating with customers of business products and services offered, and sharing expertise and knowledge among employers, including customers as well. It has the advantage of prompting individual business performance; eventually the entire business community. Business blog is an effective way of disseminating company profile and expertise; increasing web site traffic; and obtaining prospective customers.

There are several benefits a business blog can provide to even smallest business. These benefits are as follows.

1. Business blog software is easily installed and used. With a push of few button, a sole business owner or corporate can create multiple blogs, link to various resources, and publish the blogs online.  2. Business blog software serves as an economical alternative to holding an Internet presence. Blogging simply provides small business proprietors lacking with time and money to obtain a low-cost means of getting company profile and expertise throughout online—enabling searchability and accessibility. 3. Business blog updating provides much faster process. Hence, it eliminates the need for a web designer/developer to do site changes or adjustments. Coding modifications and uploading requirements can be done by business owners themselves or specifically assigned corporate employee/staff. 4. Business blog offers the small business limitless avenues to communicate its name and credibility—expertise, knowledge, including products and services of various forms—to a vast range of audience. This provides a positive benefit specifically for the business’ expertise and knowledge personnel and consultants.

Generally, business blog serves as an excellent communication and information connecting tool for any size and nature of business. It may have several disadvantages, such as limited functionality, e-commerce solutions, and requires laborious work. Nevertheless, it remains advantageous and sufficient enough to initiate blogging for business benefits.

How Blog And RSS Technologies Revolutionized Research Methods And Communication

Everyone knows how the Internet has become a powerful tool in research and communications since its initial launch to the public. It has thus become very popular and widely used by students, educators, librarians, researchers, and many other information users. While providing readable, searchable, and accessible information resource, the Internet also provided two acceptable and widely used technologies, which are blog and RSS (Real Simple Syndication).

Evidently, blog and RSS technologies have improved and simplified the process and method of information gathering online. As a result, most of the readers have become article writers themselves. Such substantial turn of events is noteworthy and is believed to continue and grow even, particularly among students and educators.

By definition, a blog or weblog is a web page that functions as an individual’s accessible personal journal by the public; often reflects the author’s personality and personal preferences. A blog is normally updated daily. RSS, on the other hand, is simply republishing online articles sourced out from other web sites. It is an effective way of popularizing new information resources and updates of particular web sites. Also, RSS is commonly used as links to web site sources.

To how blog and RSS technologies have transformed research and communication tools is basically not surprising. These Internet tools have simply offered easier filter and tracking of constantly growing pool of data and information online. Hence, these enabled students and educators to obtain, process, use, and re-use valuable and relevant information into various ways and forms.

Easy accessibility to vast information online has significantly improved knowledge of both educators and students, therefore resulting for a better and effective communication; improved learning, archiving and publishing of work; creates various avenues for collaborative work; and improved management of information/knowledge.